The article reflects the main points of the long-term program of the coal sector development, which is now undergoing the approval procedure in the government agencies. The author describes the state-of-the art, main problems and prospects of the Russian coal sector development. The Program objectives, tasks and structure, as well as main stages of its implementation are discussed. The author also predicts specific quantitative and qualitative results of the Program implementation. It is stated that the positive trend of the Program implementation indices can be provided due to such structural factors as changing of the spatial distribution of productive forces, intensive retirement of fixed assets, application of more efficient novel technologies and equipment, development of new coal conversion products. Furthermore, implementation of the respective measures will help meet the average world's standards of the main production factors efficiency in the period up to 2030. The author also describes the roadmap of the Program and proposes measures to control the program implementation.