Sanitary estimates are presented of dust as the main factor in mineral mining hygiene and its effect on occupational respiratory diseases of mine personnel. The authors discuss the mineral winning and roadheading processes, which are hazardous in terms of dust formation in coal and ore mines, and dust control levels. The main emphasis is made on mines operating self-propelled diesel machinery. The article also contains main results of the research into dust effect on the occupational respiratory pathology, a list of jobs presenting the highest risk of occupational diseases, as well as data on the pneumoconiosis pathogenic mechanism. A comprehensive system of preventive health care measures is proposed.