The article contains the report on the results of the International Scientific Conference held on 11-15 April 2011 in the town of Mirny (Sakha-Yakutia Republic). The description is given of the state-of-the art and prospects of the development of reserves and resources of the diamond mining sector in Russia. The problems are discussed, which the industry has been faced with in the recent decade of its development. To solve the problems and to find the optimal methods of the sector development the Conference timed to the 50th anniversary of the Yakutniproalmaz Research Institute gathered professionals from more than 70 organizations and institutions of the CIS republics, including Ukraine, as well as such countries as Canada and UK. The report is presented on the themes of presentations made by the industry professionals at the workshops held by 4 topical sections of the Conference, including the conclusions and recommendations made by the results of the work of each section. A set of top-priority tasks, which need immediate solution, has been formulated for ultradeep open pits and underground mines. This work will involve joint efforts of the researchers from the leading R&D institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and of the mining sector, as well as professionals from the AK ALROSA, State Reserves Committee, Rostekhnadzor (Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision) and some other institutions. The article also contains some data on the research findings and developments of the leading RAS institutes and the industry research establishments of Russia aimed at the elaboration of the scientific grounds for novel technologies of diamond mining in permafrost conditions at great depths, with higher water content and gas emission rates at a great depth.