Intensive development of mining and metallurgical sectors requires not only refurbishing and modernization of production on the basis of novel equipment and technologies, but also the continuous monitoring of the effect of unfavourable factors of working environment on the personnel health. Research into the working environment in underground mining and mineral processing has proved its invariability as extremely unfavourable and harmful conditions. The author shows a multi-factor effect of work-related hazards on human health. The article also contains a comprehensive analysis of the working environment and its effect on the mining sector personnel morbidity. The author expresses his concern about the decline of mine owners’ attention to safety-inmining. The current situation can be improved only by sufficient funding of special medical studies and monitoring of workplaces at mines and smelters.