The article contains the analysis of the coal output and exports in the main regions and countries throughout the world in 2000–2012. The author also analyzes the coal output trends in the Russian Federation in 2000–2013 by federal district, main basin and deposit. Detailed statistics is provided of the Russian coal supply to the national market and coal exports by consumer area in 2008–2013. The analysis is also provided of internal and external factors, which may have an effect on the Russian coal sector development trends and may result in the decline of the national coal demand and coal exports. The author proposes measures for the enhancement of the national coal market development and maintaining of the Russia’s supply share in the international coal market. Key words: coal output, coal industry of Russia, export, import, national coal market, analysis, coal demand.