Water: resources, reserves, markets

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2022-4-120-128
Читать на русскоя языкеS.P. Yakutseni1, 2
1 Geolexpertise (LLC), Moscow, Russian Federation
2 Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), Moscow, Russian Federation

Russian Mining Industry №4 / 2022 р. 120-128

Abstract: The article summarizes and analyzes the resources, supplies and markets of the world's main natural resource, i.e. freshwater. The materials prepared and published in the article is based on the author's own analytical and field work. Resources of the high quality natural freshwater are tight: they are and will continue to be subject to ever-increasing demand. Over the last 80 years the total consumption of fresh water has increased by 10 times while the population has grown by a factor of 2.5. The present-day world economy is water-dependent. Main consumption of water is defined by the following four sectors of the global economy: agriculture, energy, industrial production and domestic water consumption. Growth in energy production and consumption is directly linked to increased water consumption. Water supply, wastewater collection and treatment are the leaders in capital gains. Privatization of the world's natural freshwater resources is underway. The task of total dependence of arid states on product supplies from the Golden Billion countries is being resolved. The main natural resource and asset of the Russian Federation, i.e. the water resources, is completely missing from the strategies and doctrines of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: water, fresh water, drinking water, bottled water, fresh water reserves, water resources, fresh water markets, fresh water consumption, water supply, wastewater, privatization, energy consumption, capital inflow, golden billion, arid climate countries, natural resources

For citation: Yakutseni S.P. Water: resources, reserves, markets. Russian Mining Industry. 2022;(4):120–128. https://doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2022-4-120-128

Article info

Received: 30.07.2022

Revised: 15.08.2022

Accepted: 16.08.2022

Information about the author

Sergey P. Yakutseni – Cand. Sci. (Geol. & Mineral.), General Director of Geolexpertise, LLC; Associate Professor at the Department of Geoecology, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), Moscow, Russian Federation; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


1. Zueva E.T., Fomin G.S. Drinking and mineral water. Requirements of world and European standards for quality and safety. Moscow: Protector; 2003. 320 p. (In Russ.)

2. Yakutseni S.P., Galishev M.A., Kryza I. Estimation of groundwater contamination with oil products in the area of the liquidated airfield of the USSR Air Force (Brzeg, Poland). Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University. Ser.7. 1994;(2):93–97. (In Russ.)

3. Yakutseni S.P., Yakutseni P.P. Complex multi-level system of ground/surface water biotesting. In: Proceedings of the Second International conference on ground water ecology. USA, Atlanta, AWRA, US EPA; 1994.

4. Yakutseni S.P. Geotoxicological assessment of the state of natural resources of the Crimean Peninsula. Moscow; Berlin: Direct-Media; 2017. 155 p. (In Russ.)

5. Allan J.A. Virtual water: a long term solution for water short Middle Eastern economies? Paper presented at the 1997 British Association Festival of Science. Water and Development Session: University of Leeds. Leeds. UK; 1997. Available at: https://www.soas.ac.uk/water/publications/papers/file38347.pdf

6. Allan J.A. “Virtual water”: An Essential Element in Stabilizing the Political Economies of the Middle East. Yale University Forestry & Environmental Studies Bulletin, 1998;(103):141–149.

7. Yakutseni S.P. Political ecology. View from Russia. M.; Berlin: Direct-Media; 2017.; 2017. 353 p. (In Russ.)

8. Yakutseni S.P. Evolution: Patterns of evolution [ed. ed. L.E. Grinin, A.V. Korotaev]. Volgograd: Uchitel; 2018. 312 p. (In Russ.)