Base Metals: 2021 Perspectives

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2021-1-14-22

Metal experts have seen a big swing in prices and expectations in last nine months .More than 90% of the incremental demand of metals in 2020 came from a single country i.e. China. On the one hand, China stepped up local consumption of metals into infrastructure spending. However, it is highly likely that Chinese intensity of demand for commodities will face a slump. Further, Chinese export growth could cool in 2021 as manufacturers in developed markets recover post vaccination. Can the demand of metals from the rest of the world offset slow Key words: ing Chinese intensity in 2021?

Digital Transformation of Surface Mining and New Generation of Open-Pit Equipment

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-10-12

The The paper addresses the issues of designing onboard systems and complex digitalization of open-pit mining equipment. A generalized schematic diagram and composition of the On-Board Robotic Control System for open-pit equipment (OBRCS OPE) are provided. The option of the On-Board Robotic Control System for mining dump trucks (OBRCS MDT) and schematics of the on-board robotic system of the BELAZ dump truck are described in more detail. A layout option is suggested for an autonomous ready dump truck, a modification that meets all the requirements for the digital transformation (DT) generation of dump trucks i.e. the ability to operate as part of the mine fleet management systems and robotic control systems, as well as the availability of modern on-board industrial safety systems and remote diagnostics. The DT Generation of mining equipment will allow mining companies to achieve the up-to-date level in digital transformation of surface mining operations and will cut the amount of investments required in upgrading the mining transport system.

Use of Autonomous and Remotely Operated Equipment in Surface Mining

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-14-18

The article describes design principles for autonomous cargo transportation systems and social aspects of their implementation. Economic prerequisites for creation of autonomous cargo transportation systems in Russia and in the world are analyzed as well as the composition of the complex autonomous system. Issues of economic justification for implementation of autonomous cargo transportation systems, regulatory framework and safety provision of autonomous dump truck application are also addressed.

Rapid Mechanized Shaft Sinking

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-22-29

REDPATH DEILMANN GmbH from Germany has been sinking and lining two shafts and initial underground development since 2017 on the territory of the Republic of Belarus (Starobinskoe potassium salt deposit, Luban) by request of Slavkaliy LLC. Shaft sinking is one of the most complicated and time-consuming stages in renovation and construction of new underground mines. In the absolute majority of cases, shaft sinking and lining are at the critical path for implementation of such projects. Rapid rates of shaft construction ensure high technical and economic performance during the commissioning phase and earlier supply of end products to the market. The article introduces an innovative method of mechanized mine shaft sinking that provides rapid parallel sinking and lining of the mine shafts. Unique mechanized shaft boring roadheaders (SBR) manufactured by Herrenknecht are employed. Shaft sinking is done in complicate geotechnical and geological conditions intensified by a very low stability of the rocks using a dedicated rock freezing method. Modern materials are used for additional hydrosealing of the tubing liner. Workings in the near shaft insets are driven with roadheaders. A combination of all these solutions makes it possible to accelerate shaft sinking in a safe way without blasting operations and with high technical and economic performance both for the shaft sinking project and the overall construction of the mining and processing plant.

Concept for Disposal of Class 2 and Class 3 Radioactive Waste in Underground Workings with Isolating Backfilling using Paste made with Processed Uranium Ore Materials

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-31-36

The paper presents a concept for disposal of Class 2 and Class 3 radioactive waste in existing workings and chambers in the underground uranium mines of the Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union PJSC with isolation of radioactive waste storage chambers using paste backfilling made with processed uranium ore materials and sealing of cracks in host rock by injection consolidation. The need is shown to enhance the strength of radioactive waste containers to increase the number of tiers in the storage blocks to make better use of the available chamber space. Data is provided on the forecast hydrogeological conditions in deep levels (up to 1000 m) of Mine No.6.

If you plan to develop, stick to a civilized way

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-38-42

In the current situation, aggravated by the pandemic, the top management and employees of the mining company should understand the corporate tasks and objectives, and be aware that development of reserves is, first of all, a business that must be successful. Independent technical auditing is essential for everyone, both for state-of-the-art designing and for interaction with investors and banks. The subsoil users and investors have to understand that the civilized system of auditing and evaluation of deposits, created in developed countries almost half a century ago, leads to long-term and stable development. Subsoil users, who defy civilized work with auditors, designers, service companies and investors, as well as within their teams, are forced to get involved in legal processes that bring absolutely no benefits to the project development and reduce the efficiency of the subsoil development.

Innovative Changes in Educational and Training System using Museum Assets in the Digital Age

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-72-76

A topical task for the secondary and higher schools in the Digital Age is to find innovative methods and approaches in the educational process. The objective of the paper is to present the experience of interaction between the Vernadsky State Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and educational specialists, as well as to discuss further ways to actualize this trend in studying natural sciences in the secondary and higher schools. The museum has created all the necessary conditions to work with the young generation in the new environment, the key factors being a well-developed communication environment and technical facilities, as well as sustainable professional relations with the academic and teaching community of higher educational institutions of mining and geological profile. Specific examples of innovative techniques and methods of work are presented that include research and educational projects and programs, on-line video lectures, teleconferences with participation of the leading scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers and engineers, work with schoolchildren in the "Club of Young Geologists", participation of its members in a variety of city and national competitions both in real time and on-line. The accumulated experience of using digital technologies in the educational process indicates the prospects of the created developments.

Assessment of Post-Mining Condition of a Tungsten-Molybdenum Deposit and Possibility of its New Development

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-80-83

Reserves of the main Russian tungsten deposit, the Primorye Field, are close to depletion. In this connection, the feasibility of resuming the development of the Tyrnyauz tungstenmolybdenum deposit in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic (KBR) has been the subject of discussion for the past decade. According to industry experts, the ore field of this deposit still contains about 50% of the total tungsten reserves of the Russian Federation. However, implementation of the idea will be hindered by a number of both external and internal constraints. The world demand for tungsten and molybdenum is characterized with high volatility. Classical mechanisms to regulate the non-ferrous metals market in Russia are still rudimentary. The production infrastructure at the Tyrnyauz Plant has been completely destroyed, which means high capital costs for the project. The abandoned ore fields disturbed by industrial development have undergone serious changes due to intensive geochemical and gravitational processes. This physical and chemical transformation was caused by internal and external conditions which resulted in formation of migratory and toxic aggregates that had not been manifested at the time of the mine closure. As a result, the natural and man-caused evolution of ores and nonmetallic minerals has caused a significant reduction in the balance reserves of this deposit. The final decision regarding this project should be based on comprehensive understanding the obvious risks, which are impossible to avoid. Thus, if the decision is made to build a new metallurgical enterprise, it will then operate in the new market conditions with more stringent requirements regarding the mining and geological parameters of the deposit. Ore extraction and processing are inherently highly energy intensive processes. It is not an easy task to achieve its high profitability under conditions of constant and unpredictable growth in energy prices. Forecast investments to launch a new mining complex with innovative technology are too high; according to various estimates, they may reach 22-29 billion rubles. The generation of specialists who used to work at the mine before the Perestroyka is gone, and it will take years to create a new highly qualified team.

Innovations in Amber Processing Techniques and Technologies

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30686/1609-9192-2020-6-86-90

The paper reviews general information on amber as well as its physical and mechanical properties. A technology of amber mining and processing, its grading by size, shape and colour, segregation on an inclined plane, as well as separation using moving parts of various mechanical equipment are considered. Prospective technologies and methods for classifying amber into grades using friction grading machines are proposed to eliminate existing shortcomings in the technology currently used in production. Taking into account that each amber piece is unique and represents a heterogeneous material, the greatest efficiency can be achieved by combining different grading methods.