Geodynamic effects of the critically stressed state of the earth’s crust

Читать на русскоя языкеBatugin A.S.
National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow, Russian Federation
Russian Mining Industry №S1 / 2023 р. 14-21

Abstract: Such geodynamic phenomena as rock bursts and strong man-made earthquakes with a hypocenter depth much greater than the depth of mining operations; the occurrence of seismic activations at large distances from the influence area to the Earth interior; localization of epicenters of strong seismic events at the periphery of the foreshock and aftershock zone, the existence and functioning of the block structure of the earth's crust and its degassing along reactivated faults; “slow slip” earthquake; the existence of a power frame in the earth's crust and its response to geodynamic processes in the depths require further research. The main purpose of the publication is to summarize the factual data on the manifestation of the listed geodynamic phenomena in industrial areas from the viewpoint of the hypothesis that within the earth crust there exists a layer of the critical stress state with the thickness from the earth's surface to a certain depth in order to further reveal the nature of the interaction of global geodynamic and local geomechanical processes in the mining areas. Geodynamic effects associated with the critical stress state of the earth's interior are considered using the examples of strong earthquakes in industrial areas (Bachat (2013, M = 6.1), Neftegorsk (1995, M = 7–7.2), Wenchuan (2008, M = 7,8)) the man-made nature of which is assumed and discussed. Also seismic activations in the areas of mining operations and the area of geothermal projects, block structures of the earth's crust of the Kemerovo and Moscow regions are considered.

Keywords: geodynamic phenomenon, rock burst, technogenic earthquake, seismicity, magnitude, hypocenter depth, critical stress state, crustal blocks, degassing of the Earth interior, slow slip earthquake

Acknowledgments: This work was financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 22-27-00728).

For citation: Batugin A.S. Geodynamic effects of the critically stressed state of the earth’s crust. Russian Mining Industry. 2023; (1 Suppl.):14–21.

Article info

Received: 10.02.2023

Revised: 01.03.2023

Accepted: 04.03.2023

Information about the author

Andrian S. Batugin – Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Professor of the Department Mining Safety and Ecology of National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


1. Rasskazov I.Yu., Fedotova Yu.V., Sydlyar A.V., Potapchuk M.I. Analysis of induced seismic events in rockburst-hazardous Nikolaevsk deposit. Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin. 2020;(11):46–56. (In Russ.)

2. Kozyrev A.A., Semenova I.E., Zhuravleva O.G., Panteleev A.V. Hypothesis of strong seismic event origin in Rasvumchorr mine on January 9, 2018. Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin. 2018;(12):74–83. (In Russ.)

3. Eremenko A.A., Mashukov I.V., Eremenko V.A. Geodynamic and seismic events under rockburst-hazardous block caving in Gornaya Shoria. Journal of Mining Science. 2017;53(1):65–70.

4. He M., Cheng T., Qiao Y., Li H. A review of rockburst: Experiments, theories, and simulations. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2022.

5. Keneti A., Sainsbury B.A. Review of published rockburst events and their contributing factors. Engineering Geology. 2018;246:361–373.

6. Foulger G.R., Wilson M.P., Gluyas J.G., Julian B.R., Davies R.J. Global review of human-induced earthquakes. Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:438–514.

7. Adushkin V.V., Turuntaev S.V. Technogenic seismicity: induced and triggered. Moscow: Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2015. 364 p. (In Russ.)

8. Kozyrev A.A., Zhukova S.A., Zhuravleva O.G., Onuprienko V.S. Induced seismicity of rock mass: development of instrumental and methodological support to control seismicity at the khibiny apatite-nepheline deposits. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020;(9):19–26. (In Russ.) https://

9. Melnikov N.N. (ed.) Geomechanical fields and processes: experimental and analytical studies into formation and development of focal zones of catastrophic events in mining and natural systems. Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2018. Vol. 1. 549 p. (In Russ.)

10. Petukhov I.M., Batugina I.M. Subsoil geodynamics. Moscow: Nedra kommunikeishenz; 1999. 288 p. (In Russ.)

11. Batugina I.M., Petukhov I.M. (eds) Methodological guidelines for prevention of rock bursts with account of geodynamics of the deposits. Leningrad: VNIMI; 1980. 46 p. (In Russ.)

12. Petukhov I.M. On the nature of horizontal forces in the earth's crust. In: Norvatov Yu.A. (ed.) Studies and forecasts of rock mass displacements and deformations, hydrogeomechanical processes in underground and surface mining. St. Petersburg: VNIMI; 1991. (In Russ.)

13. Fisenko G.L. Limit states of rocks around mine workings. Moscow: Nedra; 1976. 272 p. (In Russ.)

14. Petukhov I.M., Sidorov B.C., Raevskaya G.G. On the bearing pressure zone. Trudy VNIMI. 1968;46:208–212. (In Russ.)

15. Gzovsky M.V. et al. Stress state of the earth's crust according to measurements in mine workings and tectonic-physical analysis. In: Kropotkin P.N. (ed.) Stress state of the earth's crust. Moscow: Nauka; 1973, pp. 50–61. (In Russ.)

16. Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V. Earthquake physics and foreshocks. Moscow: Nauka; 2003. 270 p. (In Russ.)

17. Scholz C.H. The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press; 1990. 439 p.

18. Métivier L., de Viron O., Conrad C.P., Renault S., Diament M., Patau G. Evidence of earthquake triggering by the solid earth tides. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2009;278(3–4):370–375.

19. Ellsworth W.L. Injection-induced earthquakes. Science. 2013;341(6142):1225942.

20. Tarasov B.G. Post-limit properties and correlation with spontaneous fracture dynamics in rocks. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2021;(1):13–19. (In Russ.)

21. Yakovlev D.V., Lazarevich T.I., Tsirel' S.V. Natural and induced seismic activity in Kuzbass. Journal of Mining Science. 2013;49(6):862– 872.

22. Adushkin V.V. Technogenic tectonic seismicity in Kuzbass. Russian Geology and Geophysics. 2018;59(5):571–583. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.rgg.2018.04.010

23. Ivashchenko A.I. Neftegorsk earthquake of May 27(28), 1995, and its significance in the seismic history of Sakhalin. In: Levin B.V., Likhacheva O.N. (eds) Geodynamic processes and natural disasters. Neftegorsk experience: Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific Conference with international participation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, May 26-30, 2015. Vladivostok: Dalnauka; 2015, pp. 20–23. (In Russ.)

24. Kocharyan G.G., Kishkina S.B., Budkov A.M., Ivanchenko G.N. On the genesis of the 2013 Bachat earthquake. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics. 2019;10(3):741-759. (In Russ.)

25. Batugin A. A proposed classification of the earth's crustal areas by the level of geodynamic threat. Geodesy and Geodynamics. 2021;12(1):21–30.

26. Emanov A.F., Emanov A.A., Fateev A.V. Bachatskiy induced earthquake on June 18, 2013, ML=6.1, I0=7 (Kuzbass). Russian Journal of Seismology. 2020;2(1):48–61. (In Russ.)

27. Sadovsky M.A. Selected works: Geophysics and blast physics. Moscow: Nauka; 2004. 440 p. (In Russ.)

28. Petukhov I.M., Linkov A.M. Theoretical principles and fundamentals of rock burst prediction and control. In: 5th ISRM Congress. 1983, pp. D113–D120.

29. Polets A.Yu., Zlobin T.K. Studies of focal zone features of the catastrophic Neftegorsk earthquake. In: Levin B.V., Likhacheva O.N. (eds) Geodynamic processes and natural disasters. Neftegorsk experience: Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific Conference with international participation, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, May 26-30, 2015. Vladivostok: Dalnauka; 2015. Vol. 1, pp. 141–145. (In Russ.)

30. Yuanzheng L., Jin M., Tong J. Insights gained from the seismicity around the Zipingpu reservoir before the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics. 2014;5(3):777–784.

31. Nikolaev A.V. On the possible impact of oil development on the Neftegorsk earthquake parameters. Moscow: Seismological Observation and Earthquake Prediction System, EMERCOM of the Russian Federation; 1995. (In Russ.)

32. Kundu B., Vissa N.K., Gahalaut V.K. Influence of anthropogenic groundwater unloading in Indo-Gangetic plains on the 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters. 2015;42(24):10607–10613.

33. Batugin A.S. General features of strong rock bursts and induced earthquakes in critical-stress areas of the Earth’s crust. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2021;(1):22–27. (In Russ.)

34. Kozyrev A.A., Savchenko S.N., Panin V.I., Semenova I.E., Rybin V.V., Fedotova Yu.V. et al. Geomechanical processes in geological environment of mining systems and geodynamic risk management. Apatity: Kola Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences; 2019. 431 p. (In Russ.)

35. Bukchin B.G., Fomochkina A.S., Kossobokov V.G., Nekrasova A.K. Characterizing the foreshock, main shock, and aftershock sequences of the recent major earthquakes in Southern Alaska, 2016–2018. Frontiers in Earth Science. 2020;8:584659.

36. Riga G., Balocchi P. How to identify foreshocks in seismic sequences to predict strong earthquakes. Open Journal of Earthquake Research. 2017;6(1):55–71.

37. Orlova A.V. Block structures and topography. Moscow: Nedra; 1975. 232 p. (In Russ.)

38. Vidale J.E., Houston H. Slow slip: A new kind of earthquake. Physics Today. 2012;65(1):38–43.

39. Peng Z., Gomberg J. An integrated perspective of the continuum between earthquakes and slow-slip phenomena. Nature Geoscience. 2010;3:599–607.

40. Vasilenko T.A., Voloshina N.I., Kolchik I.E., Molodetskiy A.V., Podrukhin A.A. Research of methane maintenance in soil air in the area of geological faults output under the sediments. Mining Informational and Analytical Bulletin. 2016;(7):159–166. (In Russ.)

41. Pokryszka Z., Tauziède C., Lagny C., Guise Y., Gobillot R., Planchenault J-M., Lagarde R. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface risk assessment methodology and prevention means. In: Symposium Post mining 2005, Nov. 2005, Nancy, France. Available at:

42. Gresov A.I., Yatsuk A.V. Gas zoning and gas presence in permafrost of the coal-bearing basins in eastern arctics and adjacent regions. Geoekologiya. Inzheneraya Geologiya, Gidrogeologiya,Geokriologiya. 2013;(5):387–398. (In Russ.)

43. Sibson R.H. Preparation zones for large crustal earthquakes consequent on fault-valve action. Earth, Planets and Space. 2020;72:31.

44. Batugina I.M., Petukhov I.M. Bibliography of Rock Bursts. Part 1 (1900–1979). Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema Publishers; 1990. 308 p.

45. Emanov A.F., Emanov A.A., Leskova E.V., Fateev A.V., Semin A.Yu. Seismic activation at coil mining in Kuzbass. Fizicheskaya Mezomekhanika. 2009;12(1):37–43. (In Russ.)

46. Chaplyghin N.N. Environmental outlook and development of resources. Ecology and Life. 2007;(10):16–19. (In Russ.)

47. Yakovlev D.V., Tsirel’ S.V., Mulev S.N. Laws of spreading and operational evaluation procedure for induced seismicity in mines and in mining areas. Journal of Mining Science. 2016;52(2):233–244.

48. Rybin V.V., Konstantinov K.N., Kagan M.M., Panasenko I.G. Methodology of integrated stability monitoring in mines. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020;(1):53–57. (In Russ.)

49. Gvishiani A.D., Tatarinov V.N., Manevich A.I., Kaftan V.I. Geodynamic interpretation of modern geodynamic movements in the southern part of the yenisei ridge (in application to the problems of underground isolation of radioactive waste). Eurasian Mining. 2021;(2):7–11.

50. Sidorov D.V., Ponomarenko T.V. Estimation methodology for geodynamic behavior of nature-and-technology systems in implementation of mineral mining projects. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020;(1):49–52. (In Russ.)

51. Sergunin M.P., Darbinyan T.P. Identification of rock mass jointing parameters in geological models in modern geoinformation systems (in terms of Micromine). Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020;(1):37–41. (In Russ.)

52. Biryuchev I.V., Makarov A.B., Usov A.A. Geomechanical model of underground mine. Part I. Creation. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2020;(1):42–48. (In Russ.)

53. Kobylkin S.S. Pugach, A. S. Rock burst forecasting technique and selecting a safe coal face advance direction. Mining Science and Technology (Russia). 2022;7(2):126–136.