Prospects for Increasing Mineral Resource Base of Non-Ferrous Metals Industry

A.V. Titova1, V.I. Golik2
1 Vernadsky State Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation
2 North-Caucasus State University of Technology, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation

Russian Mining Industry №1 / 2021 р. 61-68

Читать на русскоя языке

Abstract: The importance of research into enhancing the metal mining technologies is justified by the declining availability of mineral resources due to non-compliance of the conventional mining methods with the market conditions. The traditional ore processing technologies are accompanied by accumulation of processing tailings. Zero-waste recycling of primary processing waste, which is often used without extracting metals to match the sanitary standards, is not evolving. The acute environmental issues are primarily exacerbated by a lack of levers for centralized accounting and management of the accumulated waste. The aim of the study is to develop new technologies that are optimized in terms of complete utilization of the off-grade raw materials i.e. wastes from primary ore processing. The effectiveness of leaching technologies is proved with a complex method that involves experiments and calculations comparing the performance of processing options using the Box-Behnken design of metal extraction and interpreting the results in the form of logarithmic or polynomial interpolation. Quantitative values were obtained and cross-plots of metal extraction dependence on the contributing factors were made, which allow characterizing the leaching processes of polymetals and ferruginous quartzites in the disintegrator. It has been proved that mechanochemical treatment provides higher metal yield (up to 45%) than traditional waste processing technologies while securing a safety level that meets the sanitary requirements. It has also been determined that disintegrator activation during the metal leaching process increases the strength of concrete mixtures based on re-treated tailings, both as aggregates and as a binder. A conclusion is made that activation of the leaching processes in a disintegrator ensures the extraction of 50 to 80% of metals that are not available for extraction from mill tailing with conventional technologies. Development of man-made deposits using innovative technologies based on metal leaching is a real step towards expanding the mineral resource base of the metallurgical industry and improving the environmental situation in the mining regions. In contrast to technologies of a similar scope and purpose, the proposed technology makes it possible to process ores in a zero-waste manner without creating new tailings.

Keywords: mineral resource base, mill tailings, ore, leaching, disintegrator, mechanochemical treatment, metal extraction, concrete strength, zero-waste processing

For citation: Titova A.V., Golik V.I. Prospects for Increasing Mineral Resource Base of Non-Ferrous Metals Industry. Gornaya promyshlennost = Russian Mining Industry. 2021;(1):61–68. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.30686/1609-9192-2021-1-61-68.

Article info

Received: 12.01.2021

Revised: 19.01.2021

Accepted: 08.02.2021

Information about the author

Asya V. Titova – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Deputy Director on Development, Vernadsky State Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vladimir I. Golik – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Mining, North-Caucasus State University of Technology, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


1.Malyshev Yu.N., Ryakhovsky V.M., Bannikov V.F., Ryakhovskaya S.K. Mineralogy and geochemistry research – An efficient tool of improvement of mining waste processing technology. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2016;(1):73–76. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2016.01.15.

2. Malyshev Yu.N., Titova A.V. Soild mine wastes as a foundation of the supplementary mineral and raw materials base of strategic materials in Russia. Marksheideriya i nedropolzovanie = Mine Surveying and Subsurface Use. 2014;(1):23–32. (In Russ.)

3. Golik V.I., Polukhin O.N., Petin A.N., Komaschenko V.I. Environmental problems of working out of ore deposits of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2013;(4):91–94. (In Russ.) Available at:

4. Titova A.V., Naumov G.B. Environmental problems of the present. Gornaya promyshlennost = Russian Mining Industry. 2018;(2):75–78. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.30686/1609-9192-2018-2-138-75-78.

5. Rylnikova M.V., Emelianenko E.A., Angelova E.I. The effectiveness of the technical lignosulphonate leaching stale wastes from copper pyrite ores. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta = Vestnik of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University. 2013;(2):19–21. (In Russ.)

6. Komashchenko V.I. Environmental-economical expediency of utilizing mining-industrial wastes for their converting. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Nauki o Zemle = News of the Tula state university. Sciences of Earth. 2015;(4):23–30. (In Russ.)

7. Gavrishev S.E., Kornilov S.N., Pytalev I.A., Gaponova I.V. Enhancing mine production efficiency through waste management. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2017;(12):46–51. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2017.12.09.

8. Sekisov A.G., Shevchenko Yu.S., Lavrov A.Yu. Explosion injection approach to ore preparation to leaching. In: Fundamental Issues of Anthropogenic Geo-Environmental Formation: Proceedings of All-Russian Conference with Participation of Foreign Researchers, Novosibirsk, October 9–12 2012. Novosibirsk; 2012. Vol. 1, pp. 283–287. (In Russ.)

9. Lyashenko V.I., Dudchenko A.H., Rakhmanov R.A. Scientific and methodological support and technical maintenance for drilling and blasting preparation of rock ores for underground block leaching. Explosion Technology. 2020;(127/84):102–134.

10. Tayebi-Khorami M., Edraki M., Corder G., Golev A. Re-Thinking Mining waste through an integrative approach led by circular economy aspirations. Minerals. 2019;9:1–13. DOI: 10.3390/min9050286.

11. Klyuev R.V., Bosikov I.I., Mayer A.V., Gavrina O.A. Comprehensive analysis of the effective technologies application to increase sustainable development of the natural-technical system. Ustoichivoe razvitie gornykh territorii = Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2020;(2):283–290. (In Russ.)

12. Golik V.I., Komashchenko V.I. Ferruginous quartzite processing waste as a source of additional metal recovery and backfilling. Gornyi Zhurnal. 2017;(3):43–47. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17580/GZH.2017.03.08.

13. Babkin V.V., Uspenskii D.D. A New Strategy. Chemistry 2030. High Conversion of Raw Materials. Clustering. Chemicalization of Industry in the Russian Federation. Moscow: Lika; 2015. 222 p. (In Russ.)

14. Burdzieva O.G., Zaalishvili V.B., Beriev O.G., Kanukov A.S., Maisuradze M.V. Mining impact on environment on the North Ossetian territory. International Journal of GEOMATE. 2016;10(1):1693–1697. DOI: 10.21660/2016.19.5327.

15. Espinoza R.D., Rojo J. Towards sustainable mining (Part I): Valuing investment opportunities in the mining sector. Resources Policy. 2017;52:7–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.01.011.

16. Vrancken C., Longhurst P.J., Wagland S.T. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production. Waste Management. 2017;61:40–57. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.01.019.

17. Cardu M., Seccatore J., Vaudagna A., Rezende A., Galvão F., Bettencourt J. S., Tomi de G. Evidences of the influence of the detonation sequence in rock fragmentation by blasting. Part I. REM: Revista Escola de Minas. 2015;68(3):337–342. DOI: 10.1590/0370-44672014680218.